Tula is a city in Russia, the capital of the Tula region standing on the Upa River, about 182 km south of Moscow. It is a large industrial, scientific and cultural center, an important railway hub.
Tula is one of the oldest cities in Russia. It was first mentioned as a fortress of the Ryazan Principality in 1146. Extremely important defensive value of Tula was related to its position on the southern edge of the state (constant threat of raids of the Crimean Tatars) and proximity to the Upper Oka (the border with Lithuania). This caused constant concern for strengthening Tula as a key defense point. In 1503, Tula was annexed to the Grand Principality of Moscow. After it, a brick citadel (kremlin) was built. In 1552, the fortress of Tula withstood the siege of the troops lead by the Crimean Khan Devlet I Giray, who tried to prevent the march of the Moscow troops of Ivan the Terrible to Kazan.
Today, Tula is one of the major Russian industrial and commercial centers. The leading industries are ferrous metallurgy, machine building and metalworking. There are more than 300 objects of cultural heritage on the territory of Tula - monuments of architecture and urban planning, history, works of monumental art, archaeological monuments. There are a lot of different monuments in Tula dedicated to great historical figures and events, Tula craftsmen and soldiers. The largest park is the Central Park of Culture and Rest named after P.P.Belousov - a natural monument of regional significance and object of national heritage (143 hectares).
The coat of arms of Tula reflects the character of the city associated with the production of armaments. The main holiday is the City Day, held annually on the second Saturday of September.
The climate is temperate continental, characterized by warm summers and moderately cold winters. The average temperature in February is minus 7.3 degrees Celsius, in July - plus 19.4 degrees Celsius.
Tula is famous for its traditional Russian cookies made with honey and gingerbread - pryaniki. It is also a large production center of samovars. In Russia there is even a well-known proverb “You don’t take a samovar to Tula”.
Virtually all the year around it is possible to hunt and fish anywhere in the region. Vast waters of the region have always lured fans of fishing here. The Oka, Pronya, Ranova, Pra rivers as well as numerous lakes and storage ponds create favorable conditions for sports and amateur fishing. Pike, chub (asp), perch, sazan, bream, cat-fish, crucian and other fishes. Sterlet abounds in the Oka. The best season for fishing is spring and fall. Main species of birds are allowed for hunting: water/moor fowl, quail, dove; also deer, doe, hare, fox, marten, wolf. Hunting tours can be arranged for citizens of Russia and foreign nationals. So-called Russian hunting is very popular — a pack of greyhounds is used to bait fowl. The most interesting location for tourists is the Pra river which connects a network of lakes in the lowland of Meschery.
The National Park was created in 1993 with the purpose of protection and revival of unique natural complexes as well as natural and historical monuments. The National Park is always ready to welcome guest: locals and tourists can have a good time on the banks of the Pra river and Klepikovskiy Lakes, go picking berries and mushrooms in forest glades, hike and ride bikes, travel by canoe and go skiing. About five thousand visitors come here every year. The most popular tourist routes are: Klepikovskiye Lakes water route, Klepiki-Brykin Bor water route, Paustovskiy’s Path hiking route. The ‘Window to Nature’ environment path will unveil the magnificent world of typical species of Meschera. All of the routes have tourist stations. There are 8 natural monuments in the park, 8 reserves, 5 architecture monuments, over 100 archeological monuments. Ryazan travel companies are ready to welcome tourists to those routes.
The international blacksmith festival «The secrets of medieval blacksmiths»
Peter I «The Great» admitted to facilitate the ironworks in the Istye village, one of the oldest in Russia. There are still blast furnaces here, and the only existing melting furnace of the XVIII century in Europe. The program of the festival includes master class of the practicing smiths, representing different blacksmith schools, playing the ceremony of smith marriage, folk group performances, and a remarkable demonstration of forging the field ore into iron and steelwork presentation.
Military- historical festival «Trumpet, calling to arms»
The festival is dedicated to the heroic defense of Old Ryazan against the hordes of Batu Khan. More than seven centuries ago in 1237 from 16 to 21 December the citizens of Ryazan have bounded together and stood united against the might of the horde. They stood for more than their own lives, but for lives of the entire nation, valiantly protecting their motherland.
Every year in December, the descendants of those heroes gather in Ryazan Kremlin to honor the memory and heroic deeds of their ancestors. Among participants there are military-historical clubs, which work on re-creation combat techniques, stylistic features of battle, costumes, weapons and armor of warriors. The visitors will be able to witness memorable battle re-enactments, take lessons in combat techniques, talk about guns, gear, clothes of soldiers. The celebration is filled with traditional Russian games and amusements.
The only Ryazan puppet theater is next to Theater square. The audience can see performances with puppets, shadows, etc. There is a puppet museum in the theater where puppets are exhibited which performed in different shows. Children from Ryazan kindergartens and elementary schools like to visit this theater very much. Every winter there are New Year shows for kids, and during public holidays there are exhibitions of manufactured goods for the townspeople.
The big cultural potential of the entire region is largely made of its unique popular culture: traditions, rites, art trades, holidays dating many centuries. There are over three thousand history, archaeology and architecture monuments in the city and region which are unique, such as churches, estates, industrial buildings, mansions of merchants. Also, the town has good theaters and more than thirty history, art, literature, military museums. The latter are especially popular: the airborne museum, long-range air force museum, military technics museum, Tsiolkovskiy museum, Skobelev memorial, etc.
The Ryazan Kremlin is the ancient core of the town founded at the end of 1095. Ancient wooden constructions were gradually replaced by the existing ensemble of the Kremlin built between the 15th and the 19th centuries. Its distinctive feature is a completely of stone civil buildings of the 17th century. The architecture monuments of the Kremlin have been meticulously studied and gradually restored over the last 20 years. Many of them are no longer in a critical condition and look original. The great ensemble of the Ryazan Kremlin has 18 historical and cultural monuments of the 11th through 19th centuries and occupies 64 acres.
Solotchinskiy Monastery is one of the most exciting sights in Ryazan. It was founded by famous Ryazan Prince Oleg Ivanovich. According to a legend, Oleg and his wife happened to be on the bank of the Solotcha river and meet two hermits named Vasiliy and Evfimiy. They suggested the idea to build a monastery to the Grand Prince. Oleg laid it in 1390. In 1917 the monastery was shut down and a part of its buildings was lost. In April 1994 the monastery was transferred to the Ryazan Eparchy.
Holy Monastery of St John Theological
Monastery was founded by missionary monks who had come there to enlighten local heathens in the 12th and 13th centuries. They had brought the wonder-working icon of St. Ioann the Divine, one of the relics given by the Konstantinopol Church to Russia. This icon became the main relic of the cloister. A lot of relics were collected in the cloister: the wonder-working icon of the Blessed Virgin called Znamenie-Korchemna and Tihvinska. Shrines with relics of saints’ bodies such as George the Victor, healer Panteleymon, Nikolay Wonder-worker and others are stored there as well as relics related to martyrs Mihail Ryazanskiy and Iuvenaliy Ryazanskiy. Next to the monastery and ancient monastery caves is the Holy Well which has been considered as wonder-working. A lot of miraculous healings took place here.
The state museum-reserve of Sergey Esenin
The museum is situated in a picturesque place on the bank of the Oka river in the old Russian village of Konstantinovo, the native land of the greatest poet of Russia Sergey Esenin. The museum expositions are unique.The memorial exposition is connected with the poet’s relatives and describes the Ryazan period of the poet’s life. The literary exposition tells about Esenin’s creative work. In the museum you can see documentary films which demonstrate some episodes from the poet’s life.
Monument to Esenin
The monument to great Russian lyric Sergey Yesenin was opened on 2 October, 1975 when the entire country was marking his eightieth anniversary. It was set up on Trubezha embankment next to the architecture monument of Spasa-na-Yaru Church, opposite to the Ryazan Kremlin. The vast Oka plains sung by Yesenin can be seen from here. The monument is made as a bronze figure of the poet and gray and green granite surroundings.
The monument is a bit unusual. The figure looks like it is growing from the ground. Yesenin is shown enthusiastically reading his verses. His face looks inspired, the collar of the shirt is unfastened. The poet’s favorite trees grow behind the monument — birches, maples and service-trees. A special solid stone with a figure of a flying crane is an integral part of the monument.
Ryazan is a city in Russia, the capital of the Ryazan region, standing on the right bank of the Oka River. It is a major scientific, military and industrial center of the country, and a large river port located 196 km south-east of Moscow.
Originally "Ryazan" was the name of the capital of the Ryazan principality located about 50 km south-east of the present city. Today, you can find the historical and landscape museum-reserve Staraya Ryazan (old Ryazan) there. Ryazan climate is temperate continental. The average temperature in February is minus 7.9 degrees Celsius, in July - plus 19.2 degrees Celsius.
The coat of arms and flag of Ryazan are the image of a prince standing in a golden field and holding a silver sword in his right hand and a silver sheath in his left hand. The sword symbolizes protection. The prince is a collective image of a defender of the motherland and does not refer to a specific person. In the city and around it, there is a network of monasteries, some of them - Holy Trinity, Solotchinsky, Poschupovsky - are among the oldest monasteries in Russia.
Big international sports competitions are not the only events attracting tourists to Yaroslavl, there are also cultural events. Event tourism is actively developing in Yaroslavl, as it hosts events which attract tourists from different countries
The Maslenitsa (Pancake Carnival) week is an interesting event. Yaroslavl maslenitsa is the main one of the nation, and its visitors have a chance to take part in traditional amusements and folk festivals, taste traditional Yaroslavl blini (pancakes), and experience the atmosphere of genuine fun and frolic! Exclusive hand-made craftworks can be bought or just seen at the annual Yaroslavl craft fair.
Show opens the season of the biggest Russian auto show Autoexotica. The programme of event includes an exhibition of unique cars, automobile competitions, an eye-catching show, concert and Avtoradio disco. In 2012 Levtsovo, a suburban airfield, hosted the event for the sixth time and became the traditional ground for organizing mass entertainment events for Yaroslavl citizens and the city's visitors. More than 2000 unique cars from Yaroslavl, Moscow, Ivanovo, Vologda, Vladimir, and other Russian cities are expected to take part in the show.
Dobrofest music and amusement festival is a big entertainment event of European class, uniting the most popular but different types of entertainments in one event. They are represented in the form of separate grounds and zones. Among the festival participants there are guests from Europe, the CIS, and Russia. The main part of the program is music and entertainments: Russian A-list rock celebrities, sports competitions, a showing of the most interesting movies.
One of the most happening places in town, this Kostroma import is heaving during weekends, and most other days too. Brass instruments (the word 'pipe' is in the bar's name) and pictures of dogs portrayed as aristocratic ancestors adorn the walls. There is a large bar on the 2nd floor and a more intimate one downstairs. European and Asian (including some Indian) food is superb by local standards, but getting a table without reservation can be problematic.
The architectural old timer of the city, the Spassky monastery is situated on the banks of the river Kotorosl. It was founded in the 12th - 13th centuries and served not only as the monastery but also a fortress as well as the center of spirituality. There the ancient manuscript of the Tale of Igor's Campaign, the oldest monument of Slavic literature, was found. The main temple of the monastery is the Transfiguration Cathedral. It was built on the foundation of even more ancient church in the beginning of 16th century. The appearance of the temple is strict and elegant. The building of Transfiguration Cathedral is three-headed with open galleries, perched on high foundation. The drums of the temple are decorated with narrow windows and helmet domes. The interior of the cathedral is known for its 16th - century frescoes. Towering above the buildings of the monastery is the belfry, a large monumental structure of the 16th century. Transfiguration cathedral served as the burial place for princes and nobles of Yaroslavl.
Church of Elijah the Prophet
The most beautiful church of the city, the Church of Elijah the Prophet is the pride and joy of Yaroslavl and the favorite tourist attraction. It was built in 1647 - 1650 and is one of the most complete and best-preserved monuments of Yaroslavl. Built on the site of two churches, the Intercession and Elijah, the church is considered a real masterpiece of ancient Russian art. The main structure of the temple is a massive building on high foundation topped with five heads resting on light drums. The drums are decorated with arches and columns and surrounded by the rows of kokoshniks. But the main thing is, of course, the interior painting, made by famous Kostroma masters. They have no equals in beauty, richness and brightness of colors.
Walking along the tree-lined river embankments is the favourite past time of the locals at any time of the year and the view of the Volga on one side and the many historical buildings on the other is delightful. Along the way you will pass dozens of (mostly 16th Century) churches, as well as the spit (strelka) which juts out at the point where two rivers meet. In the summer there are dancing fountains on the strelka, while classical music is blasted out of various speakers all year long. Further along the Kotorsol river side of the embankment there is a large beach and a rickety amusement park. Look out for lovers leaving symbolic padlocks on the railings of the pavilions and numerous buskers tooting away on their instruments. The whole embankment route is kilometers long - and fortunately there are numerous cafes to rest en route.
Millennium Park Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl has a high potential for the development of domestic and incoming tourism. A natural cultural and historical diversity, combined with an actively developing culture and recreation complex, namely the Yaroslavl Children's Railway, Yaroslavl Zoo, the Volga River embankment, a reconstructed Strelka (place of confluence of rivers) complex and Yaroslavl circus, The Millennium Park allows for the development almost all types of tourism, including that recreation most favoured by visitors (for the purpose of leisure and amusement), cultural and educational (including religious and pilgrimage tourism), business, sports, extreme, medical, ecological, academic, scientific and other types of tourism.
Embraced by two rivers, the mighty Volga and the smaller Kotorosl, Yaroslavl's centre is dotted with onion domes like no other place in Russia. It indeed boasts a record-breaking 15-dome church. This religious zeal dates back to the times of Kyivan Rus, when the town was founded by Prince Yaroslav of Kyiv to guard his realm's northeastern flank.
The place was then known as Bear's Corner. According to the legend, Prince Yaroslav forced local Finno-Ugric people into Christendom by axing their totem bear, which now appears on the city's coat of arms. However, most churches and houses gracing the quaint city centre are products of 17th- to 19th-century merchants competing to outdo each other in beautifying their city. Much of that beauty remains unscathed by Soviet development.
Yaroslavl is an ancient city as well as modern one. The Russian state's fate reflected in its image. The city played an important role in gathering the Russian lands around Moscow, it helped Moscow sovereigns. Yaroslavl is a city with unique customs.
That's why the 1000th anniversary of the city in 2010 was not only a powerful impulse for further development but on the whole summed up the historical role played by many ancient Russian towns.
The historical center of Yaroslavl with 140 architectural monuments since 2005 is one out of 23 UNESCO World heritages in Russia. The most ancient construction on the city territory is Spaso-Preobrazhensky church of Spassky monastery built in 1506-1516 on the foundation of original construction of 1216-1224.
Yaroslavl has a large number of educational establishments which enclose all three levels of the Russian educational system: primary (ca. 20 establishments), middle (ca. 20 colleges and other secondary schools), and higher (8 2 state and non-state funded higher educational institutions). In Yaroslavl one can study for both masters 'and bachelors' level courses.
The last Saturday of May is the City Day. Various activities are held such as parachute jumping, concerts, competitions. Famous actors are invited for this sake as well as children from various clubs. There is a salute on the Volga embankment.
Festival "Musical Expedition"
"Travel with the stars of classical music!" - This is the project invitation
"Musical Expedition" is a unique journey through the most beautiful places of the Vladimir land in the company of famous artists. To join them, you will visit the mysterious Alexandrova Sloboda, storing energy grim oprichnina capital and vanished without a trace secret library of Ivan the Terrible; You see striking in its perfection the white-stone monuments of Vladimir; physically feel the "slowing down" time in a fantastic fast-flowing Suzdal; You feel children on the romantic ruins of the beautiful manor Khrapovitsky in Meshchersky forests; Gus-Crystal surprised heritage glass industrialist Maltsov and patrons, who worked his power with the glass eye to the laws of beauty and harmony; bring the bow of Saints Peter and Fevronia of Murom in the epics on the banks of the Oka beauty.
Festival of water torch
In this magical evening, thousands of people will gather at the beach on the river Klyazma, where with romantic melodies lanterns fill the water surface innermost desires, which will surely come to pass!
For guests, festival provides the concert program with fire show, dancing and fireworks.
National Festival of the historical reconstruction "Defense Vladimir Earth. 1238 "
The festival - reconstruction takes place in the first decade of February. This event is dedicated to the defense of the city of Vladimir on the raid of the Mongol-Tatar yoke, led by Batu Khan. The festival on historical fencing tournament, the competition suit, the performance of folk groups, fair historical goods and crafts, master-classes. The climax of the program will be a historical reconstruction defense of the city of Vladimir by the Tatar-Mongols in 1238.
Tourist recreation "Ladoga"
Tourism and entertainment complex located in one of the elite and the green areas of the city of Vladimir on the bank of the Klyazma River. Regarding the historical center of Vladimir complex is located 10 minutes away, close to public transport, which makes it attractive for all guests traveling on the Golden Ring of Russia. The hotel complex for 100 people, guest houses, 18 banquet rooms, 4 bath complex, secured territory and parking, all for picnic and fishing.
Cathedral of the Assumption
It is one of the most historically important Russian Orthodox Churches. For a short period in the 14th century, the cathedral was the seat of the Metropolitan, the leader of the Russian Orthodox Church. Originally, the cathedral was built in 1158 and had only one dome. However, the major reconstruction followed already in 1185: four smaller domes were added, and the building was considerably enlarged in order to resemble St. Sophia's Cathedral in Kiev.
Later on, a similar project was utilized for the cathedral of the Assumption in Moscow Kremlin. The neighboring bell tower of eclectic style was built in 1810 to replace the former hip-roof tower. The interior of the cathedral includes a number of ancient frescos from late 12th century (northern wall) and 15th century, the latter being painted by Andrei Rublev and Daniil Chyorny.
Cathedral of St. Demetrius
This is the other ancient cathedral of Vladimir. The building was constructed in 1194-97 as an in-house church of the Prince's court. Originally, galleries linked the cathedral to the palace, but they were removed during the reconstruction in 19th century. At present, St. Demetrius' Cathedral is a detached church, a unique monument of ancient Russian architecture. The bottom part of the walls is flat (here the galleries were attached), while the upper part is covered by fine stone carvings. These carvings depict stories from the life of King David and praise the harmony of the world. Yet the meaning of some carvings remains unknown. The cathedral hosts a small museum that presents enlarged images and detailed explanations for a number of carvings as well as a small piece of original frescos from late 12th century.
Once the entrance to the walled city, the gate was originally built in 1158-64. At that time, the city was surrounded by a rampart with five stone gates. The Golden Gate is the only remaining part of the complex and the unique monument of ancient fortifications in Russia. The ramparts were removed in 19th century, and the gate was reinforced by four circular bastions at the buttresses. These bastions strongly changed the appearance of the gate, so it may be advisable to see the picture of the original building like in a museum of military history inside the gate. The remaining part of the rampart is found south from the gate, along the Kozlov Rampart Street
Church of the holy Rosary
This is a Catholic church, which is actively engaged in social work. At the temple there is a bookstore with religious literature.The full name of the church Holy Rosary - The Temple of the Holy Rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary. It was founded in 1891. At the beginning of the XX century the number of believers who attend church, was no more than in 1000 In 1930, the church was closed. Its bell tower has long been used as a Radio repeater. In the 70s there marked out the exhibition hall. And only in the 90's temple was returned to the Catholic community and began to function as a church.The walls and ceilings of the temple is made in the pseudo-Gothic style, created from a red brick. Above the main entrance stands a large spire. Along with the house of the priest temple is a single ensemble.
Museum of "Old Vladimir"
This small but interesting museum is located in a former nineteenth century water tower. Visitors will see photographs of old Vladimir streets, articles of daily life, examples of room interiors, and examples of tsarists era publications. All this provides a detailed picture of everyday life in old Vladimir.
The observation deck at the top of the tower provides a wonderful view of much of today's Vladimir. The water tower happens to stand close to the spot where the Tartar-Mongols breached Vladimir's defenses in 1238.